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Earthwork Excavation & Basement

Earthwork Excavation - General

The first thing we keep our mind is in the very first starting of the project, in most projects I joined with, one of the activities shall be implemented or started first is earthwork. Here we discuss about the procedure of excavation work in steps, how it actually carried out in field, without compromising engineering standards and specifications. We will discuss in detail, the practical difficulties, solutions, precautions, safety measures, challenging tasks undergoing in all types of earth works including slushy soils, in future articles.

This Method Statement describes a proper work procedure shall be carried out during the excavation stage as per specification and contract drawings.

Good for Construction drawings

Excavation & Earthwork should always as per specifications and site conditions.

 In natural and all types of soils.

Levelling Staff and ranging rods, Steel Measuring tape – 3 & 50 m, Plumb bobs, Levelling Instrument, Trowels, Nails, Steel rods, Spirit Level, Linen tape – 30m, Paint and brushes.

Measuring tape, Plumb bobs, Crowbar, Pick axe, Spade, Trowels, Nylon Line threads, Right angles and Pans.

Work Procedure

1. Marking and setting out process :

The basic idea is of marking and setting out process is to prepare an accurate surface or base for the upcoming construction activities.

It is very important to tune our mind that, even to start with the first activity – the earthwork itself, one has to maintain 100% accuracy in his work. So, one must be always careful, alert of the potential instrumental errors occurred due to the usage of instruments, and to ease out such errors by certain techniques.

2. Degree of accuracy :

The degree of accuracy required will depend upon the type of earthwork handling at the project site. Its precision can be measured by this, whether 5 mm for prefabricated buildings (PEB), or 200 mm depth is required where more depth of excavation is involved.

3. Centreline markings :

We remember in our Engineering course, particularly in “Surveying” subject, for measuring any activity/item, we should start from “Work from the whole to the part” and repeatedly check the correctness of one’s own work with that of others and that is based on the available information.

This is easy and simple, with the adjustments of ranging rods, pegs can be fixed. Even though Total station will give accurate results, cross checks to be done at each and every stage of earthwork. In absence of total station, by means of tying line threads, which should passing through Centreline markings of grid pillars along both X axis and Y axis, required measurements on plan can be easily transferred to the ground.

4. Always establish permanent Bench marks (BM) outside the working area at the initial stage itself, and levels to be carried out with respect to the BM’s only. If this is not carried out, the errors will be accumulated and results in valuable time loss and cost of work also.

5. The drawings what we received from the concerned architect or consultant is exactly matching with field conditions or not, hence, necessary checks to be done with reference to existing and proposed roads, other buildings and existing permanent features . Then come to the conclusion that, at what extent the plan matches to the ground conditions.

6. Ensure that site personnel including supervisors or site engineers understand the significance and importance of all centreline markings with respect to pegs or grid pillars.

7. Finally Completion of traverse in any direction say clockwise and coming back to the point of origin with corresponding opposite direction say anti clockwise is the correct method to check the work. The difference between these two readings is called the “Closing error “(CL) and that CL obtained is within permissible limits, then the method of traverse carried out is correct.

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