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Stone quarrying - Miscellaneous

Stone quarrying

Stone Quarrying is defined as the process of extraction of stones from natural rock beds. The term Quarry refers to a place where all kinds of stones are taking out at ground level or slightly below ground level, but in an exposed condition. Thus obtained stones, are used for all kinds of construction activities.

Site selection

Before going for selection of site for stone quarrying, the following
important points must be considered.

  • Water : Availability of clean water in surplus quantity throughout the year.

Quality of stones :

  • The quality of stones obtained from quarry should be hard, durable and useful for construction purpose.
  • A good quantity of stones most likely to be obtained from the quarry.

Proximity of quarry :

  • Favorable Ground conditions, road accessibility for transporting stones from quarry to crusher.
  • Proximity of stone quarrying from roads, bus stands, city, town etc. and distance for transportation services.
  • Safe Dumping yard against any health hazards for people working at quarry and safe distance from the people dwellings.
  • Stone quarrying Should be away from the locality or area of all permanent structures, for carrying out Process of blasting without any hindrance.

The following important points to be considered
for starting quarry.

  • Rock surface examination and study : The external open surface of rock bed should be carefully observed. The presence of any cracks and splits, gaps, folds are to be separately noted. Later based on this study, decision can be taken for safe, rapid and cost effective quarry operations.
  • Master Plan : a Layout or Master plan contains all stages of quarrying operations is absolutely necessary for the economy and longer period of running a quarry.
  • Workforce and Equipment : To obtain a maximum output from quarry, there should be a proper cooperation, bondage and coordination between the working men and equipment used at quarry site. For example, running a machine without proper maintenance leads sudden breakdown, hampering the production and results additional expenditure. On the other hand, a good, skilled workman managing the equipment with regular maintenance, can bring quick production results in generating a good amount of revenue.
  • Removal of Top surface : The rock obtained from the top surface of stone quarrying contains layered rocks, soft in nature, loose and earthy material. This material is not at all suitable for any major construction activities, except in places with valleys, there it can be used as a dumping material and slightly hard material can be used as a base course material below PCC.
  • Structural stability : Note that the stones extracted from the stone quarrying should not have any impacts on its sides. In order to maintain the stability of structure, the sides to be treated properly by making suitable slopes with minimal angle of repose (not to exceed 45 degree slope), “Stone or Earth benching” at regular depths and wider width to the possible extent, which prevents land sliding with disastrous effects.

Machines and equipment used for stone quarrying

Crawler tractors, Bulldozers, Mobile compressors, drilling machines, moulding machines, pulley blocks, belts, cranes, channellers, crushing hammer, saws, screens, tippers, dumpers, mobile van, chain, Personal safety equipment, safety nets, supporting poles, planks, mesh against earth sliding.

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