Building and it's Components - General
Building Construction Types and it's Components
A Building is a structure consists of components like Foundation, walls, floors, roofs, beams, staircase, doors and windows related with each other. Building construction types are :
Load Bearing Wall: which always rest on the foundation taken deep in to the earth. It transfers all loads including its self-weight, loads from slab, beams, and columns along with live load to the load of the superstructure (Structure built above Ground level) on the subsoil on which it rests. In order to give more stability at the base, wider footings will be provided for these load bearing walls.
Partition Wall: This is not a load bearing wall, which will not take any load of superstructure. It is an enclosure used for rooms and just act as a screen wall separation, rests above the floor level.
As per Types of Structural system the buildings can be classified as follows
In general the structural systems of buildings or types of buildings in Civil Engineering are : –
It is the structural system of building consists of floors, slabs and beams with load bearing walls. Buildings up to 3 floors in general can go for load bearing structure. Here the thickness of walls at upper floors are less compared to lower floors and as a result, more carpet area is available at upper floors.
It is the structural system of building consists slabs and beams supported by number of columns in a systematic pattern. Here the loads from slabs are transferred to the cross beams or secondary beams, which in turn transfer it to main beams through junctions. These main beams transferred entire grid system load to the respective columns and finally to the footings. All the walls are resting over plinth beams and not over any foundations which means, no foundation is necessary for any wall. E.g.: All high raised buildings and multi-storeyed buildings.
This is the structure built with the combination of both load bearing structure as well as framed structure. Here all external walls will be considered as load bearing walls and all intermediate points will be supported by columns. This type is best suitable for, where building having large spans such as industrial buildings, halls, auditoriums, warehouses etc.
So, Load bearing structure, Framed structure and Composite structures are the examples for building construction types
Classification of Loads coming over foundations
The 3 types of loads are
1. Dead Load
2. Live Load
3. Wind Load
Where P = Wind pressure in Kg/m2
V = Velocity of wind in Kmph
K = Coefficient depends on wind speed, temperature of air and shape of structure.